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ゆとり教育”の本当の目的は「エリート教育」 [戦後史]

“ゆとり教育”と呼ばれるカリキュラムが一時期あった。詰め込みすぎの教育の弊害を是正したものだったが、あまり好評ではなかった。それもそのはずで、問題点の一つとして、「ゆとり」と言いながら、実はその本当の目的は「エリート教育」だったという説もあるのだ。



臨教審第1次答申 1985,6,26

前年発足した臨時教育審議会(臨教審)は、その最初の答申で「個性重視」「学歴社会の是正」「生涯学習」などの提言を行った。

戦後教育は画一的になっているので学制を複線化(現在の高校以外に単位制高校や6カ年教育の中学設置)し、学校教育で足りない部分は受益者負担で「生涯学習」を行うべし、というものだった。

まさに、教育の自己責任原則である。これは、その後の「ゆとり教育」につながっている。

しかし、これは戦前の教育体制である、教育の国家主義、能力主義に逆行するとの批判が強く出ていた。さらに、経済的に恵まれた師弟や勘のいい子供だけがあらかじめすくい上げられる前提になっており、開かれた民主的教育とはいえないものである。

「機会不平等」(斎藤貴男 文芸春秋)では、「結果の平等を重視した戦後の社会政策が日本の衰退を招いた」という主張のもと、90年代に行われたルール変更。

その結果、私たちは「機会の平等」すら失いつつあるのではないか、との批判的立場から、同書に、こんにち話題の、「ゆとり教育」を深化させる今回の学習指導要領の下敷きとなる答申をまとめた最高責任者、前教育課程審議会会長の三浦朱門氏のインタビューを載せている。

「学力低下は予測し得る不安と言うか、覚悟しながら教育審をやっとりました。いや、逆に平均学力が下がらないようでは、これからの日本はどうにもならんということです。つまり、できん者はできんままで結構。戦後五十年、落ちこぼれの底辺を上げることばかりに注いできた労力を、できる者を限りなく伸ばすことに振り向ける。百人に一人でいい、やがて彼らが国を引っ張っていきます。限りなくできない非才、無才には、せめて実直な精神だけを養っておいてもらえばいいんです。

トップになる人間が幸福とは限りませんよ。私が子供の頃、隣の隣に中央官庁の局長が住んでいた。その母親は魚の行商をしていた人で、よくグチをこぼしていたのを覚えています。息子を大学なんかやるもんじゃない。お陰で生活が離れてしまった。行商も辞めさせられて、全然楽しくない、魚屋をやらせておけばよかったと。裏を返せば自慢話なのかもしれないが、つまりそういう、家業に誇りを与える教育が必要だということだ。大工の熊さんも八っつぁんも、貧しいけれど腕には自信を持って生きてきたわけでしょう。

今まで、中以上の生徒を放置しすぎた。中以下なら“どうせ俺なんか”で済むところが、なまじ中以上は考える分だけキレてしまう。昨今の十七歳問題は、そういうことも原因なんです。

平均学力が高いのは、遅れてる国が近代国家に追いつけ追い越せと国民の尻を叩いた結果ですよ。国際比較をすれば、アメリカやヨーロッパの点数は低いけれど、すごいリーダーも出てくる。日本もそういう先進国型になっていかなければなりません。それが“ゆとり教育”の本当の目的。エリート教育とは言いにくい時代だから、回りくどく言っただけの話だ」

スポンサードリンク↓

問題は、これが三浦氏の個人的な価値観ではなく、教育審議会としてのものであることだ。やはり同書では、経済四団体の協賛で運営されている日本経済調査協議会の「二一世紀に向けて教育を考える」(85年)の報告書で、「万人に開かれた日本型エリート」から、「国際的に通用する個人としての『強さ』」を伴ったエリートを求める教育にシフトすべしとしたことも紹介している。

まさに「機会の平等」を剥奪することを求めた「報告」である。

科学的知識が身に付かず思考が十分に開花しないというこんにちの「学力不足」の「本質」は、決して理科教育固有の問題ではなく、文部科学省の「系統的でない教育」の責任を糾弾して完結するものでもなく、生徒・児童達が原理的に学習意欲が低下しているからでもなく、「教育改革」という国策に沿って、制度や確乎たる方針の元に仕組まれた「峻別教育」を根源とする、イデオロギー的な反映についてもきちんと見ておくべきだろう。

池上彰の「日本の教育」がよくわかる本 (PHP文庫)

池上彰の「日本の教育」がよくわかる本 (PHP文庫)

  • 作者: 池上 彰
  • 出版社/メーカー: PHP研究所
  • 発売日: 2014/05/02
  • メディア: 文庫


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